In the first part of this article we discussed the cybersecurity industry and its growth prospects. For those who want to get into the industry but have no relevant academic training, consider this: it wasn’t until the beginning of the 21st century that many universities started to offer fully accredited Data Science degree programs, so many current data scientists are trained in various disciplines such as computer science or statistics. The key to success, is often a combination of business, data, and programming knowledge.

Similarly, for those looking to switch careers into cybersecurity, not having a formal degree in the field is not a disadvantage. Since the industry is relatively new, the barriers to entry are even lower. When you conduct searches online you will find anywhere between 30-50 cybersecurity job titles. 46 of them are included in figure 2. As you can see, a “cybersecurity” industry professional is anything from an information system manger, a programmer, auditor, a risk manager, a lawyer, etc.

  Job Title Description
1 Application Security Administrator Keep software / apps safe and secure.
2 AI Security Specialist Use AI to combat cybercrime.
3 Auto Security Engineer Protect cars from cyber intrusions.
4 Blockchain Developer Code the future of secure transactions.
5 Bug Bounty Hunter Freelance hackers find defects and exploits in code.
6 Cybersecurity Scrum Master Watch over and protect all data.
7 Chief Information Security Officer Head honcho of cybersecurity.
8 Chief Security Officer Head up all physical/info/cyber security.
9 Cloud Security Architect Secure apps and data in the cloud.
10 Counterespionage analyst Thwart cyber spies from hostile nation states.
11 Cryptanalyst Decipher coded messages without a cryptographic key.
12 Cryptographer Develop systems to encrypt sensitive information.
13 Cyber Insurance Policy Specialist Consult on cyber risk and liability protection.
14 Cyber Intelligence Specialist Analyze cyber threats and defend against them.
15 Cyber Operations Specialist Conduct offensive cyberspace operations.
16 Cybercrime Investigator Solve crimes conducted in cyberspace.
17 Cybersecurity Hardware Engineer Develop security for computer hardware.
18 Cybersecurity Lawyer Attorney focused on info/cyber security and cybercrime.
19 Cybersecurity Software Developer Bake security into applications.
20 Data Privacy Officer Ensure legal compliance related to data protection.
21 Data Recovery Specialist Recover hacked data from digital devices.
22 Data Security Analyst Protect information on computers and networks.
23 Digital Forensics Analyst Examine data containing evidence of cybercrimes.
24 Disaster Recovery Specialist Plan for and respond to data and system catastrophes.
25 Data acquisition Security Analyst Secure critical infrastructures.
26 Ethical / White Hat Hacker Perform lawful security testing and evaluation.
27 Governance Compliance & Risk Manager Oversee risk management.
28 IoT Security Specialist Protect industrial control systems.
29 Incident Responder First response to cyber intrusions and data breaches.
30 Information Assurance Analyst Identify risks to information systems.
31 Information Security Analyst Plan and carry out info security measures.
32 Intrusion Detection Analyst Use security tools to find targeted attacks.
33 IT Security Architect Implement network and computer security.
34 Malware Analyst Detect and remediate malicious software.
35 Mobile Security Engineer Implement security for mobile phones and devices.
36 Network Security Administrator Secure networks from internal and external threats.
37 Penetration Tester Perform authorized and simulated cyberattacks.
38 Public Key Infrastructure Analyst Manage secure transfer of digital information.
39 Red Team Member Participate in real-world cyberattack simulations.
40 Security Auditor Conduct audits on an organization’s information systems.
41 Security Training Specialist Train employees on cyber threats & awareness.
42 Security Operations Center Analyst Coordinate and report on cyber incidents.
43 Source Code Auditor Analyze software code to find bugs, defects, and breaches.
44 Threat Hunter Search networks to detect and isolate advanced threats.
45 Virus Technician Detect and remediate computer viruses and malware.
46 Vulnerability Assessor Find exploits in systems and applications.

So how will the changing “World of Work” impact your career in the short and long term? Having worked in the financial services industry for 13 years, I witnessed first-hand how technology, automation, and offshoring has drastically reduced the size of the workforce. This has given rise to the “gig economy” which challenges the very meaning of the term “employment”.  The hard fact is that the knowledge and skills you learn in college will most likely be obsolete in 5-10 years. As such, it is important to commit to lifelong learning as a job requirement and develop “human skills” which are the following combinations:

  • Programming + Communication
  • Artificial intelligence (AI) + Emotional Intelligence (EQ)
  • logic + ethics

Recently I chatted with Debbie Reynolds, a cybersecurity expert in Global Data Privacy & Protection, Speaker, Author, and Educator. She is a thought-leader who advises Fortune 500 Companies on how to handle data privacy and electronic evidence in high-stakes civil litigation. However, she did not get here with a degree relating to cybersecurity. A Philosophy major from Loyola University in Chicago, she learned basic computer and data skills in order to work from home, so she could care for her mother. She went on to work at a law firm focused on eDiscovery, which lead to her managing large legal databases. Over the years, she accumulated vast amounts of expertise in this field through a combination of legal background and data management. Now, she applies her skills and thought leadership to promote cybersecurity and data privacy. Her career path exemplifies how one can be successful in the “future of work”: develop a combination of technical skills and industry expertise, apply them to evolving industries and fields, and constantly re-invent yourself through life-long learning.

So, for those of you who are considering your career plans or looking for your next opportunity, take a look at the cybersecurity industry. For additional information here are places to find training for specific qualifications such as the NIST cyber security certification which is the “gold standard” globally adapted by the U.S. and many other nations for cyber governance practices.

The cybersecurity space is growing tremendously, like the internet when it first “started.” This will be the largest wave of up-skilling that industries have seen in decades. It is an accelerating, well-compensated field. Contrast that with the level of intellectual stagnation that many other fields represent and you will find that the opportunities are endless.



MarketsandMarkets. (September 21, 2018). Size of the cybersecurity market worldwide, from 2017 to 2023 (in billion U.S. dollars) [Graph]. In Statista. Retrieved October 02, 2019, from

Heather Lu-Lasky

About Heather

Heather Lu-Lasky, CFA, is the Founder & CEO of ChampAmerica Inc., a New York-based Career & Workforce Development and Management Consulting firm.